ژانویه 20, 2021

منابع پایان نامه درباره Translation، ایالات متحده، tradition

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Table 4.25
Translation Strategy
Explicitation
Source Text
“The notorious Iranian secret police, SAVAK, created under the guidance of the
CIA and Israel,…” (p. 71)
Target Text
“ساواک پلیس امنیت بدنام ایران که به راهنمایی موساد اسراییل تاسیس شد،…” (ص. 151)
In the translated text two strategies are employed by the translator: explicitation and deletion. The translator used “Israel” next to “Mossad” to highlight Israel’s role in training notorious SAVAK agents. Also he deleted “CIA” from the translated text to magnify the role of “Israel” which is Iran’s number one enemy. Since the Israeli forces occupied Palestine, Iran does not even recognize them as a country.
4.3.2.1.4 Mistranslation Strategy
Table 4.26
Translation Strategy
Mistranslation
Source Text
“In 1961, when the New York Times got wind of the Colorado operation, it acceded to a Pentagon request to probe no further.” (p. 25)
Target Text
“در 1961 هنگامی که نیویورک تایمز از عملیات کلرادو آگاه گردید، سازمان سیا به درخواست وزارت دفاع گردن نهاد و به عملیات یادشده پایان داد.” (ص. 28)
Here the discussion revolves around New York Times in the original book but in the translated text the agent turned into CIA. In fact New York Times was asked to not go any further in its investigations over CIA’s operation. With this mistranslation the translator is going to say CIA not only interferes in other country’s affairs but also in those of its own. Via this mistranslation he tries to blacken more CIA’s reputation.
4.3.2.1.5 Addition Strategy
Table 4.27
Translation Strategy
Addition
Source Text
“Above and beyond the bedevilment of china on its own merits, there was the spillover from the Korean war into Chinese territory – numerous bombings and strafings by American planes which, the Chinese frequently reported, took civilian lives and destroyed homes. And there was the matter of germ warfare.” (p.25)
Target Text
“افزون بر اینگونه اقدامات پنهانی سیا که هدفشان مخدوش کردن چهرهی چین ته دلیل ارزشهای انقلابیاش بود، ضایعات جنگ کره به خاک چین نیز سرایت کرد: تعداد فراوانی بمباران و گلولهباران به وسیلهی هواپیماهای آمریکایی که به قتل بسیاری از افراد غیر نظامی و ویرانی خانههای بیشمار منجر گردید. همچنین جنگ میکروبی.” (ص. 28)
In the above paragraph some points worth mentioning. firstly, there is no mentioning of CIA in the original text as you see, but the translator uses addition technique to magnify the interference of this association around the world. Secondly in the translated text we face “revolutionary merits” while in the original text the author did not go beyond the boundary of “its own merits”. Here again we see addition to the limit of the original text to amplify the good characteristic of china by using the word revolutionary which is almost everywhere bears a positive connotation with it. In this way the better China looks the worse America come across. Thirdly, what we have in the original text is “took civilian lives and destroyed homes” but the adjective “countless” is added by the translator once more to intensify the degree of gravity the Americans impose over other nations.
Table 4.28
Translation Strategy
Addition
Source Text
“The Chinese devoted a great deal of effort to publicizing their claim that the United States, particularly during January to March 1952, had dropped quantities of bacteria and bacteria-laden insects over Korea and northeast China.” (p.25)
Target Text
” چینیها تلاش فراوان به خرج دادند که ادعاهایشان را مبنی بر اینکه ایالات متحده آمریکا،…، مقادیر هنگفتی میکروب…، ثابت کنند.” (ص. 28)
In the above paragraph the word the author used is “publicizing” which is different from “proving” which the translator used by alteration. The first has a lower effect than the latter. Also the writer used “quantities” not “massive quantities” added by the translator which once again is employed to represent the enormity of the situation.
Table 4.29
Translation Strategy
Addition
Source Text
“he stated that the Shah, encouraged by foreign elements”, had attempted a coup d’etat.” (p.67)
Target Text
“شاه به تشویق “عناصر بیگانه” اقدام به کودتا کرده، ولی کودتا نافرجام مانده است.”(ص. 141)
The last part of the sentence in the TT is added to the original form of it, probably to clarify that the Shah did not succeed in ousting Mosaddegh. In this way the translator illustrated the incapability of the Shah and his “foreign elements” even more.
4.3.2.1.6 Undertranslation Strategy
Table 4.30
Translation Strategy
Undertranslation
Source Text
“Great Britain”
Target Text
“بریتانیا”
In using the word “Great Britain” used by the author which along with the USA is considered as one of Iran’s biggest enemies the translator does not share the same opinion with the author in considering Britain as being “Great” so he uses undertranslation.
4.3.2.2 “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”
In the translation of “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” by Stephen kinzer, Khavajian used different translation strategies such as addition, omission, alteration, explicitation, and substitution. Since the translation of the present book with the title of “همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه” was published in Islamic Republic of Iran (I.R.I) and it revolved around the political atmosphere before and after nationalization of oil in Iran and the political figures and parties those days the aforementioned strategies were employed consciously by the translator to apply the comprehensive doctrine of I.R of Iran.
Here come the cases on which the investigation of translation strategies has taken place and divided based on each strategy:
Table 4.31- strategies applied in the translation of All the Shah’s Men, ” همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه”
Strategies Applied in the Translation of All the Shah’s Men
Number
Percentage %
Omission
6
15
Substitution/Alteration
20
52
Explicitation
4
11
Mistranslation
Addition
4
11
Undertranslation
4
11
Borrowing
Calque
Rearrangemet of Sentence Elements
Selection of Parts From Wholes
Total Number of Strategies
38
100
4.3.2.2.1 Omission Strategy
Table 4.32
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“This outburst reflected a great gap in knowledge and understanding that separates most Iranians from most non-Iranians.” (p. x)
Target Text
“…. که آگاهی و درک بیشتر ایرانیها را از غیر ایرانیها متمایز میکند.” (ص. 11)
Here the translator used “Iranians from non-Iranians”. The term “most” is deleted from the TT. By this the translator is trying to point out a nationalist view that all Iranians are separated from non-Iranians.
Table 4.33
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“This book tells a story that explains a great deal about the sources of violent currents now surging through the world.” (p. x)
Target Text
“… ماجرایی را بازمیگوییم که… را توضیح میدهد…” (ص. 13)
As the translator mentions in the note at the beginning of the translated book he does not believe that “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” provides an exhaustive description of the Coup. Believing in the fact that what kinzer is not the whole story and is vaster, he deleted the phrase “a great deal” from his translation and just mentions that it “describes” the situation, nothing more.
Table 4.34
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“The death blow came from no less a conqueror than Alexander,” (p. 20)
Target Text
” ضربهی مرگبار نهایی را اسکندر….” (ص. 43)
The writer used “no less a conqueror than Alexander” to appreciate Alexander and ascend his power while the translator did not use any adjectives to describe him. By deleting the “no less a conqueror” the translator tries to undermine Alexander’s values.
Table 4.35
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“About 90 percent of the one billion Muslims in the world today identify with the Sunni tradition. Of the remainder, most are Shiites, the largest number of whom are in Iran. The split between these two groups springs from differing interpretations of who deserved to succeed the prophet Mohammad as caliph, or leader of he Islamic world, after his death in 632. Shiites believe that his legitimate successor was Ali, a cousin whom he raised from childhood and who married one of his daughters. Ali was one of those to whom Mohammad dictated his revelations, which became known as the Koran, and he once slept in Mohammad’s bed as a decoy to foil a murder plot. But another man was chosen as caliph, and soon Ali found himself in the position of a dissident. He criticized the religious establishment for seeking worldly power and diluting the purity of its spiritual inheritance. Economic discontent brought many to his side, and ultimately the conflict turned violent.
Ali was passed over twice more when caliphs died, and he devoted himself to preaching a doctrine of piety and social justice that won him many followers, especially among the lower classes. He finally won the supreme post in 656, but the conflict only intensified, and less than five]]>

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