می 14, 2021

منابع پایان نامه درباره Translation، ایالات متحده، انقلاب اسلامی

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Another point is that kinzer mentions in different parts of his book, specifically, the back of the cover page of the translated book that what USA had done 60 years ago ignited a flame, in that America is still burning. One of those flares coming out of the flame of American Coup in Iran, he claims, is Iran’s revolution which if it had not been for the Coup it would not had happened and Americans would not have had such problems they are facing now. On page 203 of his book he mentions the above mentioned ideas as this:
“With their devotion to radical Islam and their eagerness to embrace even the most horrific kinds of violence, Iran’s revolutionary leaders became heroes to fanatics in many countries. Among those who were inspired by their example were Afghans who founded the Taliban, led it to power in Kabul, and gave Osama bin-Laden the base from which he launched devastating terror attacks. It is not far-fetched to draw a line from Operation Ajax through the Shah’s repressive regime and the Islamic Revolution to the fireballs that engulfed the World Trade Center in New York.”
What he mentioned above bears two sides. One is informing Americans of why hatred around the globe toward them is growing and why they are suffering from terrorism so much. Another side of the coin is that America has done a bad deed once 60 years ago in a corner of the world, and Americans are still suffering from it. Looking upon the matter in this perspective brings pity for Americans. The latter view also takes for granted that whatever is happening to the USA is on behalf of Islamic extremists, at the top of them Iranians. Nonetheless, it has not yet been indicated that one who was behind the attack to the World Trade Center.
This showed that the translation aimed at showing that America was a false pretender of democracy and human rights. While the author’s objective, as stated in the preface and specifically the last parts of the book, was to show that the Coup in Iran in spite of America’s direct meddling was the cause of later side-effects.
4.3.2 Translation Strategies
By analyzing the strategies applied in the translation of these two books, it became clear that in both سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی” دوم به بعد” and همهی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشههای ترور در خاور میانه”” the translation strategies were applied purposefully and ideologically. The justification of choosing each strategy is brought after each case. In the following the strategies the translators, Khavvajian and Hooshang Mahdavi, employed to apply their ideologies to the TT are brought in length and in short (in tables 4.3 & 4.31).
4.3.2.1 ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II”
In the translation of the ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” different strategies such as omission, addition or over-wording, mistranslation, under-translation, substitution or alteration, and explicitation were applied. Since the organization behind the translation of this book, “”مرکز اسناد انقلاب اسلامی, is supported directly by the government, the strategies were applied consciously by the translator to fulfill the expectation of the mentioned organization or his own beliefs. The number and percentage of each strategy is depicted in table 4.1 below.
Table 4.3- strategies applied in the translation of Killing Hope, ”سرکوب امید، دخالتهای نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”
Strategies Applied in Translation of Killing Hope
Number
Percentage %
Omission
6
22
Substitution/Alteration
12
44
Explicitation
4
15
Mistranslation
1
4
Addition
3
11
Undertranslation
1
4
Borrowing
Calque
Rearrangemet of Sentence Elements
Selection of Parts From Wholes
Total Number of Strategies
27
100
Here come the cases on which the investigation of translation strategies has taken place and divided based on each strategy:
4.3.2.1.1 Omission Strategy
Table 4.4
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“After completing training, each group of Tibetans was flown to Taiwan or another friendly Asian country, …” (p.25)
Target Text
“… به تایوان یا کشور آسیایی دیگری گسیل میشدند … ” (ص. 28)
The translator did not use “friendly Asian country” because to the country of the author -USA- may some Asian countries be friendly which in the eye of the translator’s country -Iran- they are not considered as allies. In this regard he used omission strategy to fulfill the ideology he believes in.
Table 4.5
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“the Iranian Communist Party (The Tudeh)” (p.65)
Target Text
“حزب کمونیست توده”(ص. 136)
By omitting the word “Iranian” consciously or unconsciously, being under the influence of Islam, the translator avoids mentioning that “The Tudeh” party was also part of Iranian history. So somehow he is trying to purify the name of his country from the Communist ideology.
Table 4.6
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“[Mosaddegh] had appointed some Tudeh sympathizers to government posts.” (p.66)
Target Text
The above sentence from the ST is totally omitted from the TT may be because Mosaddegh was a national figure and did really important measures for his country the translator did not want to mention that he had communist inclinations.
Table 4.7
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“the “The notorious Iranian secret police, SAVAK, created under the guidance of the
CIA and Israel,…” (p. 71)
Target Text
“ساواک پلیس امنیت بدنام ایران که به راهنمایی موساد اسراییل تاسیس شد،…” (ص. 151)
In the translated text two strategies are employed by the translator: explicitation and deletion. The translator used “Israel” next to “Mossad” to highlight Israel’s role in training notorious SAVAK agents. Also he deleted “CIA” from the translated text to magnify the role of “Israel” which is Iran’s number one enemy. Since the Israeli forces occupied Palestine, Iran does not even recognize them as a country.
Table 4.8
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“it [Syria] was the only state in the area to refuse all US economic or military assistance.” (p.85)
Target Text
“]سوریه[ تنها کشور منطقه به شمار میآمد که کمک نظامی آمریکا را نپذیرفته بود.” (ص. 181)
Omitting the term “economic” by the translator represents the fact that he is trying to induce that American help can only cover military part and this country is always after military interference.
Table 4.9
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“the United States is prepared to use armed forces to assist any Middle East country requesting assistance against armed aggression from any country controlled by international communism”. (p. 89)
Target Text
“ایالات متحده برای حفظ تمامیت ارضی و استقلال سیاسی ملتهایی که برای مقابله با تجاوز آشکار مسلحانهی کشورهای زیر نفوذ کمونیسم بینالمللی چنین کمکی را تقاضا کنند، قوای مسلح خود را به کار خواهد برد.”(ص. 192)
As it is obvious above there is no sign of Middle East in the translation. By deleting Middle East from the translation, the translator indicates that the US army is going to interfere everywhere over the globe.
4.3.2.1.2 Substitution/ Alteration strategies
Table 4.10
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“An altitude approximating that of their mountainous homeland”(p. 25)
Target Text
“ارتفاع آن شبیه تبت بود”(ص. 28)
By using the adjective “mountainous” and the word ”homeland” instead of Tibet itself the writer brings a sense of friendliness to the text which shows Tibetans brought to Colorado consider it as their homeland which bears a closer sense of affability than the word Tibet used by the translator. Since these people were taken there to be trained to take part paramilitary groups later, the translator used substitution strategy in using a less friendly word to show he is not sympathizing with them unlike the writer.
Table 4.11
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The Chinese devoted a great deal of effort to publicizing their claim that the United States, particularly during January to March 1952, had dropped quantities of bacteria and bacteria-laden insects over Korea and northeast China.” (p.25)
Target Text
” چینیها تلاش فراوان به خرج دادند که ادعاهایشان را مبنی بر اینکه ایالات متحده آمریکا،…، مقادیر هنگفتی میکروب…، ثابت کنند.” (ص. 28)
In the above paragraph the word the author used is “publicizing” which is different from “proving” which the translator used by alteration. The first has a lower effect than the latter. Also the writer used “quantities” not “massive quantities” added by the translator which once again is employed to represent the enormity of the situation.
Table 4.12
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
a Tudeh-sponsored]]>

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