ژانویه 27, 2021

منابع پایان نامه درباره Translation، the Middle East، خاورمیانه

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Target Text
“تظاهراتی که حزب توده ترتیب داده بود به کشته شدن 20 نفر و زخمی شدن 500 نفر انجامید.” (ص. 138)
What is mentioned in the original text is totally altered by the translator. In the original text it is obvious that Mosaddegh was partly responsible for the deaths of 100 people while in the target text there is no sign of Mosaddegh’s name in the text, moreover the number of people killed in the demonstration is mentioned as 20 which is one fifth of the source text. Also in translation the subject is demonstrated in a way that it is possible to consider that the people who are killed are from both sides while in the ST they are victimized by Mosaddegh. In aspect of technique used here this is kind of alteration and selection of a part from a whole.
Table 4.13
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“the proverbial communist takeover”(p. 64)
Target Text
” روی کار آمدن کمونیستهای تودهای”(ص. 135)
The “proverbial” is used “when you describe something using part of a well-known expression”. (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) so the translator by using substitution technique used the familiar term “The Tudeh” instead of “proverbial” to give specific information about a branch of communism in Iran which is known to everyone. In this way he could establish a better relation with the reader.
Table 4.14
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The various accounts of the CIA role in Iran have the Agency spending from $10,000 to $19 million to overthrow Mossadegh.” (p. 68)
Target Text
“… سازمان مبلغی بین 100000 تا 19 میلیون دلار صرف براندازی مصدق کرد.” (ص. 143)
The amount of money spent to overthrow Mosaddegh announced by CIA agents in the original text varies from $10,000 to $19 million but $10,000 in the ST is altered to $100,000 in the translated text. The reason is that the translator considers that the variation of numbers between $100,000 and $19 million is more reasonable than between $10,000 and $19 million. So in his view it is not logical that all the money has been spent on toppling a Prime Minister down equals to $10,000.
Table 4.15
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“Love’s views, contained in a paper he wrote in 1960, may well have been inspired by information received from the CIA.” (p. 69)
Target Text
“احتمال میرود نظریهی لاو، در کتابی که در 1960 منتشر ساخت، …” (ص. 145)
It goes without saying that a paper in aspect of the amount of material it is covering is smaller than a book. Also usually a book’s value is higher than a paper’s. Bearing that in mind, the translator substituted “a paper” in the ST with “a book” in the TT to show that the amount of information that has been released against CIA by Love is more than it is mentioned in reality. Since this information is related to the interference of USA in other countries, the more the better.
Table 4.16
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“Though sponsored by the Tudeh” (p. 69)
Target Text
“تظاهرات یاد شده را [به مناسبت سالروز 30 تیر] جبههی ملی ترتیب داده بود” (ص. 146)
The translator used two strategies in the above mentioned translation. Instead of “The Tudeh” in the ST he used ” “جبههی ملیor “National Front Party” in the TT which is a total substitution and also he employed explicitation in [به مناسبت سالروز 30 تیر] or (aniiversary of 30th of Tir) to bring the demonstration closer to the mind of the Iranian Readers. Since he considered “National Front Party” more in line with the principles of Islamic Republic of Iran than “The Tudeh” and he deemed if there is a demonstration it is more appropriate for “National Front Party” to lead it, used it over “The Tudeh”.
Table 4.17
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“When to this is added a level of corruption that “startled even the most hardened observers of Middle Eastern thievery” (p. 71)
Target Text
“…. حتی پوستکلفتترین دزدان خاورمیانه را به شگفت میانداخت”(ص. 151)
In the original text the word “observers” means the people who were watching closely the Middle Eastern thievery. In the translated text this word is changed to “thieves”. This substitution is employed to enlarge the magnitude of corruption in Iran to the extent that even thieves themselves are bewildered by that.
Table 4.18
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The payments to the ayatollahs and mullahs began in 1953 and continued regularly until 1977 when President Carter abruptly halted them.” (p. 71)
Target Text
“پرداخت پول به روحانینمایان …” (ص. 152)
In the original text it is mentioned that CIA was bribing some “ayatollahs and mullahs” to give speech in favor of the USA. But in the translation the translator called them “fake clergymen”. This alteration by the translator is because Iran unlike many other countries is a country that clergymen take political roles in managing the country; this is to the extent that based on Iran’s Constitutional Law the person who is leading the country should be an ayatollah. For the reasons mentioned above, clergymen and ayatollahs are respected in Iran and the translator does not want to taint their titles by bribery.
Table 4.19
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The cut-off of funds to the holy men, it is believed, was one of the elements which precipitated the beginning of the end for the King of Kings.”(p. 71)
Target Text
“اعتقاد ما بر این است که قطع کمک مالی به این اشخاص…”(ص. 152)
In the translation the words “the holy men” is translated into just “this people”. This is because in the ST the words “the holy men” which refer to the aforementioned ayatollahs and mullahs are used sarcastically but as the clergymen in Iran are of respect, the translator changed these words into “these people” to not disrespect them.
Table 4.20
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“Sometime during this year the CIA began making secret annual payments to King Hussein, initially in the millions of dollars per year.”(p. 90)
Target Text
“در خلال این سال سرنوستساز، سازمان سیا شروع به پرداخت پول به حسین کرد که مقدار آن در ابتدا، فقط چند میلیون دلار در سال بود.” (ص. 194)
Using the phrase ” “فقط چند میلیون دلارby the translator reverses the meaning the author was about to convey via alteration technique. By “millions of dollars per year” the author says the amount of money is considerable, while the translator tries to provoke that Hussein was cooperating with the CIA for a little amount of money and by this crushes his character. There is another sign the translator is trying to crush whom in the text is called “King Hussein” and that is by depriving him from the label “King” the translator called him just “Hussein”. This brought Hussein’s character down even more.
Table 4.21
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“But the residents of the Middle East were not the only ones who may have been taken in by the spurious broadcast, for it was picked up by the American press and passed on to an unwitting American public;” (p. 97)
Target Text
” اما اهالی خاور میانه کسانی نبودند که تحت تاثیر برنامههای رادیویی قرار گیرند، چون مطالب برنامههای یاد شده را عینا روزنامههای آمریکایی چاپ میکردند و به خورد ملت آمریکا میدادند.” (ص. 210)
Here again the translated text is altered drastically by the translator for his country- Iran-and consequently his people- Iranians- are part of the Middle East. What the author mentions is that the Middle Easterns like Americans are fooled by the American press and media while the translator tries to put Middle Easterns and consequently Iranians above Americans in aspect of understanding and knowledge.
4.3.2.1.3 Explicitation
Table 4.22
Translation Strategy
Explicitation
Source Text
“In March 1951, the bill for nationalization was passed”(p. 64)
Target Text
“ملی شدن نفت به تصویب هر دو مجلس رسید”(ص. 134)
In the original text only the passing of the bill to nationalization is mentioned but in the translated text by using explicitation strategy and explaining more about how and where the bill was passed by the translator there is much proof provided for the already mentioned fact.
Table 4.23
Translation Strategy
Explicitation
Source Text
“Though sponsored by the Tudeh” (p. 69)
Target Text
“تظاهرات یاد شده را [به مناسبت سالروز 30 تیر] جبههی ملی ترتیب داده بود” (ص. 146)
The translator used two strategies in the above mentioned translation. Instead of “The Tudeh” in the ST he used ” “جبههی ملیor “National Front Party” in the TT which is a total substitution and also he employed explicitation in [به مناسبت سالروز 30 تیر] or (aniiversary of 30th of Tir) to bring the demonstration closer to the mind of the Iranian Readers. Since he considered “National Front Party” more in line with the principles of Islamic Republic of Iran than “The Tudeh” and he deemed if there is a demonstration it is more appropriate for “National Front Party” to lead it, used it over “The Tudeh”.
Table 4.24
Translation Strategy
Explicitation
Source Text
“On 26 July, Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser announced that his government was taking over the operation of the Suez Canal.” (p. 86)
Target Text
“در 26 ژوییه، جمال عبدالناصر، رییس جمهور مصر اعلام کرد که دولت وی ترعهی سوئز را ملی میکند و خودش عملیات ادارهی آن را در دست میگیرد.” (ص. 185)
Although based on what Wikipedia and other history sources declare Gamal Abdel Naser nationalized the Suez Canal, there is no mentioning]]>

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