دسامبر 3, 2020

منابع پایان نامه درباره Translation، tradition، determination

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The mantle of resistance passed to Ali’s son, Hussein, who was himself killed while leading seventy-two followers against an army of thousands in a suicidal revolt at Karbala in 680. Determined to suppress Hussein’s legacy, the authorities ordered most of his family slain afterward. His body was trampled in the mud and his severed head taken to Damascus, where Shiites believe that it continued to chant the Koran even as the caliph beat it with a stick. Retelling these stories and others about Hussein, “the lord among martyrs,” is what provokes the paroxysm of passion that spreads through Qom and other sacred Iranian cities every year on the anniversary of his death.
Hussein’s embrace of death in a sacred cause has shaped the collective psyche of Iranians. To visit Qom during the mourning that commemorates his martyrdom is to be caught up in a wave of emotion so intense that it is hard for an outsider to comprehend. Processions of men and boys dressed in black move slowly, as if in a trance, toward the gate of the main shrine. All the while, they chant funereal verses lamenting Hussein’s fate and flog themselves with metal-studded whips until their shoulders and backs are streaked with blood. In storefront mosques, holy men recount the sad tale with such passion that soon after they begin, worshipers fall prostrate with grief, weeping uncontrollably as if the most intimate personal tragedy had just crushed them. The breathtaking authenticity of this scene testifies to the success Iranian Shiites have had in formulating a set of religious beliefs that is within the Islamic traditionbut still distinctly native.” (pp. 22-23)
Target Text
The abovementioned paragraphs from pages 22&23 of the original book are totally deleted from the TT. the reasons why Islam is separated into two main branches of Shiites and Sunnis after the death of the holy prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is mentioned in the mentioned part. In Iran both Shiites and Sunnis are living together and there always existed this fundamental challenging question that which one truly follows the right path of the last prophet. For both groups to remain in peace and live shoulder to shoulder the policy of leaders of I.R of Iran is not to raise questions that upset the equilibrium in the society. Since the translator is part of Iran’s society and the book is translated for this community he recognized the deletion of these paragraphs is the best choice to stay on the safe side with the comprehensive doctrine of I.R. of Iran.
Table 4.36
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“Many thousands of poor farmers across the country grew tobacco on small plots; a whole class of middlemen cut, dried, packaged, and distributed it; and countless Iranians smoked it.” (p. 32)
Target Text
“طبقهای کامل از ایرانیان میانهحال به کار، کاشت، داشت، برداشت و توزیع محصول اشتغال داشتند.” (ص. 60)
The phrase “countless Iranians smoked it” is deleted in the translated text. Since the translator assumes smoking as a filthy habit and he is Iranian, he does not want to admit that a large number of his people were using tobacco.
Table 4.37
Translation Strategy
Omission
Source Text
“He was blissfully unaware of the contempt in which many Iranians held him, however, and did not imagine he was in any danger when he visited the University of Tehran to attend an anniversary celebration.” (p. 62)
Target Text
“… و وقتی هم که در مراسم جشنی در دانشگاه حضور یافته بود…”(ص. 101)
The Shah is not a lovable character in Iran, so his attendance in one of the best universities of Iran, University of Tehran, not only is not welcomed in the translator’s eye but also it will taint the name of this university and devalues it. Regarding this, the translator deleted the name of the university and he mentions only that the Shah attended a university.
4.3.2.2.2 Substitution/ Alteration Strategies
Table 4.38
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“the United States was responsible for putting an end to democratic rule in 1953” (p. x)
Target Text
“… دولت آزادیخواه مصدق…” (ص. 11)
Instead of “democratic rule” in the ST the translator used “Mosaddegh’s liberal rule”. The alteration is to lay more effect on the reader by hearing Mosaddegh’s name which is not mentioned in the ST.
Table 4.39
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“His dictatorship produced the Islamic Revolution of 1979, which brought to power a passionately anti-American theocracy that embraced terrorism as a tool of statecraft.” (p. x)
Target Text
“…. که این حکومت نیز به نوبهی خود وحشتآفرینی [در مقابل دشمنانش] را به مثابهی یک ابزار اعمال قدرت دولتی پیشه ساخت.” (ص. 12)
The word “terrorism” exploited by the author bears a totally negative connotation in nowadays world. It equals bombing, suicidal bombing, ossification, al-Qaeda. The writer takes Iran’s terrorism for granted now tries to fabricate a reason for that. In this way he remains no question for the reader why USA is calling Iranians terrorists all around the world and Iranians, allegedly, do horrible things like supporting terrorist groups and all because of what poor America has done a long time ago. In this way America is victimized by Iran. The translator who is an Iranian feels all above-mentioned points and uses “frightening” to water down the word “terrorism”, this is when the word “terror” in the title of the book remained unchanged during his translation. He, also, uses “against its enemies” in the brackets to show that his government is not savage, it is a natural action against enemies that any government would take.
Table 4.40
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“These events serve as a stark warning to the United States and to any country that ever seeks to impose its will on a foreign land.” (p. x)
Target Text
“….. در صدد تحمیل ارادهی خود به ملتهای دیگرند.” (ص. 12)
By using “other nations” instead of “a foreign land” the translator brought energy and soul to his writing. The translator considers interference as something that is posed to human lives and their destiny not just to their lands.
Table 4.41
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“to present this decree to Mossadegh and arrest him if he resisted.” (p.1)
Target Text
“و در صورت مقاومت، نخستوزیر را بازداشت کند.” (ص. 17)
The word “Mosaddegh” in the ST is substituted with the word “Prime Minister” in the TT. By using the word “Prime Minister” the translator is trying to enlarge the enormity of what was about to happen. By this substitution he implies that here the Mosaddegh’s character is not as important as the position he is representing.
Table 4.42
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The colonel did as he was told.” (p. 1)
Target Text
” سرهنگ نصیری همان کاری را کرد که به وی دستور داده شده بود.” (ص. 17)
The verb “was told” in the original text is altered to “was ordered” in the target text to show that Nasiri’s will was not an option there and he was a puppet in the Shah and American’s hand.
Table 4.43
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“the American attitude toward a possible coup in Iran…” (p. 3)
Target Text
“نگرش آمریکا به انجام کودتا در ایران….” (ص. 20)
“a possible coup” is changed into “stage a coup” to show the determination of Americans in performing this action.
Table 4.44
Translation Strategy
Substitution
Source Text
“Iran had immense oil wealth, a long border with the Soviet Union, …” (p. 4)
Target Text
“این کشور از منابع عظیم نفت، …..” (ص. 21)
By using “this country” instead of “Iran” the translator induces that the identity of the country and the people living in that are but at all of any importance to Americans. What brings a land to their eye is how it provides them with benefit.
Table 4.45
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“Articles accused him not just of communist leanings and designs on the throne, … .” (p. 6)
Target Text
“وی نه فقط به داشتن ارتباطات کمونیستی ….” (ص. 24)
In the original text Mosaddegh is accused of “communist leanings” which is less than “relation with the communists” which is translated in the TT. The translator amplified the severity of the accusations toward Mosaddegh by the press to show how dangerous he was to them because the more grave attacks are toward someone the more colossal his character becomes after he surpasses them.
Table 4.46
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“The controllable press was going all out against Mossadegh,…”. (p. 13)
Target Text
“مطبوعات خریداری شده…” (ص. 33)
To be controlled is not as awful as being bought because it is possible to be controlled while the person or group is not aware of it, but if a person is bought he consciously is doing something wrong. So altering is a technique used here to once again amplify the influence of Americans over Iranian press.
Table 4.47
Translation Strategy
Alteration
Source Text
“European colonialists drew their national borders in the nineteenth or twentieth century, often with little regard for local history and tradition,” (p. 18)
Target Text
“… و این کار اغلب بدون توجه به تاریخ و سنت محلی آنها انجام گرفت.” (ص. 40)
The phrase “with little regard” which is used in the]]>

این مطلب را هم بخوانید :  منبع مقاله دربارهنرم افزار، داده ها و اطلاعات، طلاق

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